Background - The Thermodynamic Inefficiency of Standard Engines

Standard gasoline engines utilize less than 30% of the fuel's potential energy, while over 70% of its energy is lost. This huge energy waste is also associated with high CO2 and NO’x noxious emissions. Much of this wasted energy and harmful emissions are due to compromises inherent to current 4-stroke internal text boxcombustion engines design, which hosts all four strokes in a single cylinder.

The two major losses are:
Exhaust Loss (~27%) – The single cylinder size is a compromise between optimal expansion and compression sizes. As a result, the cylinder size is too small to allow complete expansion of the combusted charge, and therefore the exhausted gas contains unutilized heat energy.
Cooling Loss (~37%) – A cooler environment is required for an efficient Intake and Compression. To provide these conditions the radiator continuously “steals” heat to cool the cylinder. However, overcooling during the combustion stroke is highly inefficient.